Vitamin D Level Is Associated With Severity of Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis and Incidence of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Non-Diabetic Cardiac Patients

Arch Med Sci. 2019 Mar;15(2):359-368. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2019.83291. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Abstract

Introduction: Ischaemic heart disease is the main cause of death in developed countries. There are many modifiable risk factors associated with coronary heart disease (CAD). A growing number of studies point to vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for heart attacks and the conditions associated with cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to analyse the relationship between the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and the severity of coronary artery atherosclerosis and to study 25(OH)D levels in non-diabetic patients hospitalised due to acute coronary syndrome and those diagnosed with stable CAD.

Material and methods: oronary angiography was performed prospectively in 410 successive cardiac patients. The severity of coronary artery atherosclerosis was assessed according to the Coronary Artery Surgery Study Score (CASSS). The plasma 25(OH)D level was assessed with the electrochemiluminescence method.

Results: The 25(OH)D level proved to be one of the significant determinants of the CASSS (p < 0.05). In subjects without significant lesions in the coronary arteries the 25(OH)D level was significantly higher compared to patients with one- to three-vessel coronary atherosclerosis (p < 0.05). A significantly higher 25(OH)D level was noted in patients diagnosed with stable CAD compared to patients hospitalised due to acute coronary syndrome (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: Patients with one- to three-vessel atherosclerosis have a significantly lower 25(OH)D level compared to patients without significant lesions in the coronary arteries. A lower 25(OH)D level was observed in patients hospitalised due to acute coronary syndrome compared to patients diagnosed with stable CAD.

Keywords: cardiometabolic risk factors; coronary atherosclerosis; vitamin D.