In the wake of the Human Genome Project (HGP), strong expectations were set for the timeline and impact of genomics on medicine-an anticipated transformation in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. In this Perspective, we take stock of the nascent field of genomic medicine. In what areas, if any, is genomics delivering on this promise, or is the path to success clear? Where are we falling short, and why? What have been the unanticipated developments? Overall, we argue that the optimism surrounding the transformational potential of genomics on medicine remains justified, albeit with a considerably different form and timescale than originally projected. We also argue that the field needs to pivot back to basics, as understanding the entirety of the genotype-to-phenotype equation is a likely prerequisite for delivering on the full potential of the human genome to advance the human condition.
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