Knowledge Gaps in Urologic Care of Female Spinal Cord Injury Patients

Curr Urol Rep. 2019 Mar 23;20(5):21. doi: 10.1007/s11934-019-0884-6.


Purpose of review: We highlight the substantial gaps in knowledge on urologic care of female spinal cord injury (SCI) patients.

Recent findings: Males account for approximately 80% of people living with SCI in developed nations. Although there is a robust body of literature in some aspects of urologic care of individuals with SCI, such as treatments for neurogenic detrusor overactivity, there are relatively few studies focusing specifically on females. There are also few studies focusing on other aspects of urologic care of women with SCI such as sexual dysfunction, pelvic organ prolapse, and bladder cancer. Established guidelines for bladder management exist, generally recommending intermittent catheterization, but the fact remains that a substantial number of women with SCI utilize indwelling catheters for bladder management. There remains a paucity of literature using patient-reported measures regarding both outcomes and experiences of urologic management in the SCI population. Bladder management is challenging for many women with SCI. There are few studies on other urologic concerns in women with SCI.

Keywords: Female; Spinal cord injury; Urologic management.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Catheters, Indwelling
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms / etiology
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms / therapy*
  • Patient Reported Outcome Measures
  • Pelvic Organ Prolapse / etiology
  • Pelvic Organ Prolapse / physiopathology
  • Pelvic Organ Prolapse / therapy
  • Quality of Life
  • Sex Factors
  • Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological / etiology
  • Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological / physiopathology
  • Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological / therapy
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / complications*
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / epidemiology
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / mortality
  • Urethra / pathology
  • Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic / etiology
  • Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic / therapy*
  • Urinary Bladder, Overactive / etiology
  • Urinary Bladder, Overactive / physiopathology
  • Urinary Bladder, Overactive / therapy
  • Urinary Incontinence / etiology
  • Urinary Incontinence / physiopathology
  • Urinary Incontinence / therapy