Purpose of review: This review provides an update on the recent literature describing the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer formation and bone metastasis. We confined our focus on osteosarcoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Recent findings: In all areas covered, major discoveries on the role of miRNAs in tumorigenesis and metastasis have been made. Novel signaling networks were identified with miRNAs having a central function. Potential improvements in the diagnosis of malignant diseases and the long-term follow-up might become possible by the use of miRNAs. Furthermore, miRNAs also have disease-modifying properties and might emerge as a new class of therapeutic molecules. MiRNAs are novel and important regulators of multiple cellular and molecular events. Due to their functions, miRNAs might become useful to improve the diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of cancer, and metastases. Thus, miRNAs are molecules of great interest in translational medicine.
Keywords: Biomarker; Bone; Cancer; Metastasis; Therapy; microRNAs.