Tumors exhibit altered metabolism compared to normal tissues. Many cancers upregulate expression of serine synthesis pathway enzymes, and some tumors exhibit copy-number gain of the gene encoding the first enzyme in the pathway, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH). However, whether increased serine synthesis promotes tumor growth and how serine synthesis benefits tumors is controversial. Here, we demonstrate that increased PHGDH expression promotes tumor progression in mouse models of melanoma and breast cancer, human tumor types that exhibit PHGDH copy-number gain. We measure circulating serine levels and find that PHGDH expression is necessary to support cell proliferation at lower physiological serine concentrations. Increased dietary serine or high PHGDH expression is sufficient to increase intracellular serine levels and support faster tumor growth. Together, these data suggest that physiological serine availability restrains tumor growth and argue that tumors arising in serine-limited environments acquire a fitness advantage by upregulating serine synthesis pathway enzymes.
Keywords: PHGDH; breast cancer; melanoma; serine.
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