Use of infrared thermography in a case of systemic envenomation by the coral snake Micrurus frontalis (Duméril et al., 1854) in Sao Paulo, Brazil

Toxicon. 2019 May;163:70-73. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.03.016. Epub 2019 Mar 21.


Infrared thermography is a technique that quantifies the thermal (infrared) radiation emitted by an object and produces a high-resolution, digital thermal image of it. Medically, this technique is used to visualize the body's surface temperature distribution in a non-invasive, safe, and convenient fashion. However, to the best of our knowledge, the use of infrared thermography for assessing the systemic effects of envenomation by coral snakes has not been reported. In this case report, we describe the use of this technique in the management of a case of snakebite in Sao Paulo, Brazil. A 51-year-old woman was bitten on the back of the right hand by Micrurus frontalis, a species of coral snake, 10 min prior to her arrival at the hospital. Infrared imaging performed at admission revealed elevated temperatures at the bite site and in the elbow, as well as the preservation of a normal distal thermal gradient in both hands. A few minutes later, the patient developed muscle weakness in the upper limbs and in the eyelids, and infrared imaging showed an alteration of the thermal gradient in both hands, reflecting the systemic action of the venom. Following these observations, the patient was treated with the specific antivenom and was discharged 48 h post admission. At the two-week follow-up, the thermal image obtained showed no anomalies, indicating the recovery of the patient. Hence, infrared thermography can be very useful in the early identification of systemic neurotoxicity in cases of Micrurus snake bites, facilitating the decision to prescribe the antivenom.

Keywords: Coral snake; Envenomation; Infrared thermography; Micrurus frontalis.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antivenins / therapeutic use
  • Brazil
  • Coral Snakes*
  • Elapid Venoms / poisoning
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infrared Rays
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Paralysis / chemically induced
  • Snake Bites / diagnostic imaging*
  • Snake Bites / therapy
  • Thermography / methods*


  • Antivenins
  • Elapid Venoms