Protective role of wild garlic on isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in wistar rats

J Ethnopharmacol. 2019 Jun 12;237:108-115. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.03.049. Epub 2019 Mar 21.


Ethnopharmacological relevance: Tulbaghia violacea Harv. (TVL) is a folk medicine, native to South Africa which has previously shown antioxidant, anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic effects.

The aim of the study: The aim of the current study was to investigate the protective role of wild garlic or TVL on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial necrosis in rats.

Materials and methods: Animal (n = 6 each group) were pre and co-treated with TVL (60 mg/kg body weight) daily for 30 days. Myocardial necrosis was administrated by subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg body weight) into rats on 29th and 30th day. On the 31st day, rats were anaesthetized and blood, heart samples were obtained for the biochemical, histopathological and molecular study. The specific protein target analysis from TVL was done by reverse docking study (reverse pharmacophore mapping) using PharmMapper.

Results: The levels of cardiac markers, lipid peroxidation products, and heart rate were considerably increased in ISO-induced myocardial necrosis in rats whilst plasma enzymatic antioxidants were significantly decreased. Myocardial necrotic mRNA genes were increased in ISO-induced myocardial necrosis in rats compared to controls. Pre and co-treatment with TVL and ramipril of myocardial necrosis in rats showed significant effects on all the biochemical and molecular studies evaluated. TVL reduced heart rate, prevented oxidative stress and downregulated the Fas-receptor and caspase-mediated apoptosis-signaling pathway, and heart muscle damage in myocardial necrosis in rats. The specific target protein [disulfide, bis (2-sulfhydrylethyl] from TVL mediates the protective effects.

Conclusion: Wild garlic or TVL extract has shown a protective effect on ISO-induced myocardial necrosis in rats by increasing antioxidant production confirmed with docking studies.

Keywords: Bis (2-sulfhydrylethyl); Disulfide; Fas-receptor; Isoproterenol; Oxidative stress; Tulbaghia violacea.

MeSH terms

  • Amaryllidaceae*
  • Animals
  • Cardiotonic Agents / pharmacology
  • Cardiotonic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Caspases / genetics
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Isoproterenol
  • Male
  • Myocardium / metabolism
  • Myocardium / pathology*
  • Necrosis
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Rhizome
  • fas Receptor / metabolism


  • Cardiotonic Agents
  • Plant Extracts
  • fas Receptor
  • Caspases
  • Isoproterenol