Existing treatments against drug addiction are often ineffective due to the complexity of the networks of protein-drug and protein-protein interactions (PPIs) that mediate the development of drug addiction and related neurobiological disorders. There is an urgent need for understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie drug addiction toward designing novel preventive or therapeutic strategies. The rapidly accumulating data on addictive drugs and their targets as well as advances in machine learning methods and computing technology now present an opportunity to systematically mine existing data and draw inferences on potential new strategies. To this aim, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of cellular pathways implicated in a diverse set of 50 drugs of abuse using quantitative systems pharmacology methods. The analysis of the drug/ligand-target interactions compiled in DrugBank and STITCH databases revealed 142 known and 48 newly predicted targets, which have been further analyzed to identify the KEGG pathways enriched at different stages of drug addiction cycle, as well as those implicated in cell signaling and regulation events associated with drug abuse. Apart from synaptic neurotransmission pathways detected as upstream signaling modules that "sense" the early effects of drugs of abuse, pathways involved in neuroplasticity are distinguished as determinants of neuronal morphological changes. Notably, many signaling pathways converge on important targets such as mTORC1. The latter emerges as a universal effector of the persistent restructuring of neurons in response to continued use of drugs of abuse.
Keywords: cellular pathways; drug abuse; drug-target interactions; mTOR complex 1; machine learning; neurotransmission; pleiotropic proteins; quantitative systems pharmacology.