In recent years, the use of cosmeceutical-based personal care and beauty products has ever increased, around the world. Currently, an increasing number of compounds are being assimilated in the formulation of cosmetic products as preservatives, fragrances, surfactants, etc. to intensify the performance, quality, value, and lifespan of cosmetics. Nevertheless, many of these chemical additives pose toxic effects to the human body, exhibiting health risks from a mild hypersensitivity to life-threatening anaphylaxis or lethal intoxication. Therefore, the indiscriminate application of cosmeceuticals has recently become a mounting issue confronting public health. The present review focuses on exposure to a large variety of toxic substances used in cosmetic formulations such as 1,4-dioxane formaldehyde, paraformaldehyde, benzalkonium chloride, imidazolidinyl urea, diazolidinyl urea, trace heavy metals, parabens derivatives, phthalates, isothiazolinone derivatives (methylchloroiso-thiazolinone, and methylisothiazolinone), methyldibromo glutaronitrile, and phenoxy-ethanol. The biological risks related to these substances that they can pose to human health in terms of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, neurotoxicity oestrogenicity or others are also discussed. Researchers from academia, consultancy firms, governmental organizations, and cosmetic companies should carry out further progress to keep updating the consumers regarding the dark-sides, and health-related harmful apprehensions of cosmetics. In addition, the industry-motivated initiatives to abate environmental impact through green, sustainable and eco-friendly product development grasp significant perspective.
Keywords: Adverse effects; Biological risks; Chronic diseases; Cosmetics; Hazardous compounds; Human health; Toxicity.
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