To identify whether parent-of-origin effects (POE) of the 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 microdeletion are associated with differences in clinical features in individuals inheriting the deletion, we collected 71 individuals reported with phenotypic data and known inheritance from a clinical cohort, a research cohort, the DECIPHER database, and the primary literature. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to test for differences in specific and grouped clinical symptoms based on parental inheritance and proband gender. Analyses controlled for sibling sets and individuals with additional variants of uncertain significance (VOUS). Among all probands, maternal deletions were associated with macrocephaly (p = 0.016) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD; p = 0.02), while paternal deletions were associated with congenital heart disease (CHD; p = 0.004). Excluding sibling sets, maternal deletions were associated with epilepsy as well as macrocephaly (p < 0.05), while paternal deletions were associated with CHD and abnormal muscular phenotypes (p < 0.05). Excluding sibling sets and probands with an additional VOUS, maternal deletions were associated with epilepsy (p = 0.019) and paternal deletions associated with muscular phenotypes (p = 0.008). Significant gender-based differences were also observed. Our results supported POEs of this deletion and included macrocephaly, epilepsy and ASD in maternal deletions with CHD and abnormal muscular phenotypes seen in paternal deletions.
Keywords: 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 microdeletion (Burnside-Butler) syndrome; autism; developmental delays; imprinting; motor delays; parent-of-origin effects; phenotype-genotype correlation.