Background: It is unclear whether a history of surgical site infection is associated with developing a new infection after subsequent operations. We aim to investigate the impact of an earlier abdominal wall surgical site infection on future 30-day infectious wound complications after open incisional hernia repair with mesh.
Methods: Patients undergoing elective, clean open incisional hernia repair were identified within the Americas Hernia Society Quality Collaborative and were divided into those with and without a history of a surgical site infection. Predictors of a surgical site infection and a surgical site infection requiring a procedural intervention were investigated using logistic regression and propensity-matched analysis. A subgroup analysis was done to investigate whether an earlier methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection specifically increases odds for infectious complications.
Results: Of 3,168 identified patients, 589 had a history of a surgical site infection and experienced higher rates of postoperative surgical site infection (6.5% vs 2.9%, P < .001) and surgical site infections requiring procedural intervention (5.3% vs 1.9%, P < .001). After adjusting for identified confounders, a previous surgical site infection was independently associated with developing another surgical site infection (odds ratio 2.04, 95% confidence interval 1.32-3.10, P < .001) and a surgical site infection requiring procedural intervention (odds ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.35-3.55, P = .001). Propensity-matched analysis controlling for additional confounders confirmed the association of an earlier surgical site infection with the outcomes of interest (odds ratio 2.1 and 2.8, respectively). A subgroup analysis found that an earlier methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection specifically did not incur higher rates of surgical site infection when compared with non-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pathogens.
Conclusion: History of a surgical site infection increases the odds for new infectious complications after open incisional hernia repair in a clean wound. Investigations on perioperative interventions to ameliorate the negative impact of such association are necessary.
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