Doneness preferences, meat and meat-derived heterocyclic amines intake, and N-acetyltransferase 2 polymorphisms: association with colorectal adenoma in Japanese Brazilians

Eur J Cancer Prev. 2020 Jan;29(1):7-14. doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000506.


Intake of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and other mutagenic compounds formed during cooking has been hypothesized to be responsible for the positive association observed between red meat and colorectal cancer. We evaluated whether well-done/very well-done preferences for various meat and fish items, higher intakes of meat and fish, and meat-derived and fish-derived HCA are associated with the risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA) in a Japanese-Brazilian population. We selected 302 patients with adenoma and 403 control individuals who underwent total colonoscopy between 2007 and 2013, and collected information on aspects of meat intake using a detailed questionnaire. We also estimated HCA intake of the study participants using an HCA database that matched the cooking methods of this population. Latent class analysis on the basis of response to doneness preferences for different cooking methods of commonly consumed meat and fish items identified four distinct subgroups. Compared with the subgroup characterized by a preference for rare/medium well-done cooking for most meat and fish items, the odds ratio of CRA for the well-done/very well-done preference subgroup was 1.19 (95% confidence interval: 0.51-2.75). High intake of mixed-meat dishes was suggestively associated inversely with CRA, whereas a high intake of poultry was associated positively with CRA. No clear association with intake of total or specific HCAs and no effect modification by N-acetyltransferase 2 acetylation genotype were observed. We found no statistically significant associations between meat and HCA intake and CRA. These findings do not support a positive association between meat and meat-derived HCA intake and the risk of CRA.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenoma / epidemiology*
  • Adenoma / genetics
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Amines / administration & dosage*
  • Amines / adverse effects
  • Amines / metabolism
  • Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase / genetics*
  • Asian People / statistics & numerical data
  • Brazil / epidemiology
  • Carcinogens / administration & dosage*
  • Carcinogens / metabolism
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Colonoscopy / statistics & numerical data
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics
  • Consumer Behavior / statistics & numerical data
  • Cooking / methods
  • Cooking / statistics & numerical data*
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Fish Products / adverse effects
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Hot Temperature / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Red Meat / adverse effects
  • Risk Factors


  • Amines
  • Carcinogens
  • Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase
  • NAT2 protein, human