Foreign body ingestion encompasses both foreign object ingestion (FOI) and esophageal food impaction (EFI) and represents a common and clinically significant scenario among patients of all ages. The immediate risk to the patient ranges from negligible to life-threatening, depending on the ingested substance, its location, patient fitness, and time to appropriate therapy. This article reviews the FOI and EFI literature and highlights important considerations and implications for pediatric and adult patients as well as their providers. Where published literature is insufficient to provide evidence-based guidance, expert opinion is included to supplement the content of this comprehensive review.
Keywords: Dysphagia; Endoscopy; Foreign bodies; Gastrointestinal emergency; Medical management.