Effects of pH, temperature, concentration, and time on particle counts in lipid-containing total parenteral nutrition admixtures

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1986 Jul-Aug;10(4):375-80. doi: 10.1177/0148607186010004375.

Abstract

It has been standard practice in the United States to separate lipid emulsion from the other components of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) due to the reported instability of admixed intravenous lipid emulsions. Some clinicians, however, have combined all TPN components into one container and administered these admixtures to patients without apparent difficulties. Infusion of all nutrients from one container has many advantages. In this study standard and concentrated admixtures were aseptically prepared using generally accepted guidelines of the nutritional requirements for a 70-kg patient. Treatments of standard and concentrated admixtures consisted of: storing at 4 degrees C without adjusting the pH; increasing the pH to 6.6 and storing at 4 degrees C; increasing the pH to 6.6 and storing at room temperature. Samples were monitored for 3 weeks by means of Coulter Counter analysis, pH determinations, and visual observations. The pH of the admixtures did not change over 3 weeks. Mean counts of particles with sizes between 1.6 and 25.4 mu increased over time for each treatment group. Within treatments, concentrated admixtures had significantly greater particle counts than the corresponding standard admixtures. Within the standard and within the concentrated admixtures, the particle counts were significantly greater for group one than for group three. Particle counts in group two tended to lie between the values of group one and three. Visual signs of emulsion deterioration were greatest in those admixtures in which the pH was not adjusted and occurred earlier in concentrated admixtures.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Drug Stability
  • Electrolytes
  • Emulsions
  • Fat Emulsions, Intravenous / administration & dosage*
  • Glucose
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Lecithins
  • Nutritional Requirements
  • Parenteral Nutrition Solutions
  • Parenteral Nutrition, Total*
  • Particle Size
  • Safflower Oil
  • Solutions
  • Soybean Oil
  • Temperature*
  • Time Factors

Substances

  • Amino Acids
  • Electrolytes
  • Emulsions
  • Fat Emulsions, Intravenous
  • Lecithins
  • Parenteral Nutrition Solutions
  • Solutions
  • amino-acid, glucose, and electrolyte solution
  • safflower oil, soybean oil, lecithin emulsion
  • Soybean Oil
  • Safflower Oil
  • Glucose