Construction and preliminary validation of Triarchic Psychopathy Scales from the HEXACO-100

Psychol Assess. 2019 Aug;31(8):961-973. doi: 10.1037/pas0000716. Epub 2019 Mar 28.


According to the triarchic model, psychopathy encompasses 3 distinct dispositional constructs: boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Although the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure was designed to assess these 3 constructs, researchers have developed alternative triarchic scales using both omnibus measures of general personality and existing psychopathy scales. The components of the HEXACO model of personality may be especially capable of characterizing the dimensions of the triarchic model of psychopathy. The current study used a consensus-rating approach to create triarchic scales using items from the HEXACO-100. Data from 3 community and college student samples were used to examine the internal consistency, and convergent and discriminant validity of these newly developed HEXACO-Triarchic scales. The scales consistently demonstrated good internal consistency and displayed promising convergent and discriminant validity with theoretically predicted criterion variables. The lone exception was that HEXACO-Meanness and HEXACO-Disinhibition were similarly related to other triarchic measures of meanness. The implications of these findings for the integration of the HEXACO and triarchic models are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Personality
  • Personality Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Personality Inventory / standards*
  • Personality Inventory / statistics & numerical data
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Students / psychology
  • Students / statistics & numerical data