Inotuzumab ozogamicin versus standard of care in relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Final report and long-term survival follow-up from the randomized, phase 3 INO-VATE study

Cancer. 2019 Jul 15;125(14):2474-2487. doi: 10.1002/cncr.32116. Epub 2019 Mar 28.


Background: Inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO) is an antibody-drug conjugate used for adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The INotuzumab Ozogamicin trial to inVestigAte Tolerability and Efficacy (INO-VATE) previously reported improved outcomes with InO versus standard-of-care (SoC) chemotherapy. This article reports the final INO-VATE results (≥2 years of follow-up) and additional analyses of patient characteristics associated with improved outcomes.

Methods: Between August 27, 2012, and January 4, 2015, this multicenter, parallel, open-label, phase 3 trial randomized 326 adults with relapsed/refractory ALL to InO (n = 164) or SoC (n = 162); 307 received 1 or more doses of the study drug (164 in the InO arm and 143 in the SoC arm).

Results: The complete remission (CR)/complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) rate was higher with InO versus SoC (73.8% vs 30.9%; 1-sided P < .0001), with consistent CR/CRi rates across patient subgroups. The median overall survival (OS) was 7.7 months with InO and 6.2 months with SoC, with 2-year OS rates of 22.8% and 10.0%, respectively (overall hazard ratio, 0.75; 97.5% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.99; 1-sided P = .0105). The predictors of OS with InO were the best minimal residual disease status, baseline platelet count, duration of first remission, achievement of CR/CRi, and follow-up hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT; all 2-sided P values < .05). More InO arm patients proceeded directly to HSCT after achieving CR/CRi before any follow-up induction therapy (39.6% [95% CI, 32.1%-47.6%] vs 10.5% [6.2%-16.3%]; 1-sided P < .0001). The most frequent all-grade and grade 3 or higher adverse events in both arms were hematologic. Veno-occlusive disease (VOD)/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) was more frequent with InO (23 of 164 [14.0%] vs 3 of 143 [2.1%]).

Conclusions: In patients with relapsed/refractory BCP ALL in INO-VATE, InO was associated with a greater likelihood of CR/CRi across key patient subgroups, and it served as a bridge to HSCT. Potential VOD/SOS risk factors must be considered when InO treatment decisions are being made.

Trial registration: NCT01564784.

Keywords: acute lymphoblastic leukemia; adults; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; hepatic veno-occlusive disease; inotuzumab ozogamicin; remission induction.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological / adverse effects
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological / therapeutic use*
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease / etiology
  • Humans
  • Inotuzumab Ozogamicin / adverse effects
  • Inotuzumab Ozogamicin / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy*
  • Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / mortality*
  • Progression-Free Survival
  • Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease / etiology
  • Recurrence
  • Remission Induction
  • Standard of Care*
  • Survival Rate
  • Young Adult


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
  • Inotuzumab Ozogamicin

Associated data