Cardiac disorders and structural brain abnormalities are commonly associated with hypospadias in children with neurodevelopmental disorders

Clin Dysmorphol. 2019 Jul;28(3):114-119. doi: 10.1097/MCD.0000000000000275.


The objective of our study was to use an established cohort of boys to investigate common patterns of malformations in those with hypospadias. We performed a retrospective review of the phenotype of participants in the Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study with neurodevelopmental delay and an 'Abnormality of the genital system'. This group was divided into two subgroups: those with hypospadias and without hypospadias. Associated phenotypes of the two subgroups were compared and analysed. Of the 166 Deciphering Developmental Disorders participants with hypospadias and neurodevelopmental delay, 47 (28%) had cardiovascular and 40 (24%) had structural brain abnormalities. The rate of cardiovascular abnormalities in those with neurodevelopmental delay and genital abnormalities other than hypospadias (N = 645) was lower at 19% (P = 0.001). In addition, structural brain malformations were higher at 24% in the hypospadias group versus 15% in the group without hypospadias (P = 0.002). The constellation of these features occured at a higher rate in the hypospadias group versus the no hypospadias group (P = 0.038). In summary, this is the first study to indicate that cardiovascular and brain abnormalities are frequently encountered in association with hypospadias in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Not only do these associations provide insight into the underlying aetiology but also they highlight the multisystem involvement in conditions with hypospadias.

MeSH terms

  • Brain / abnormalities
  • Cardiovascular Abnormalities / etiology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypospadias / complications*
  • Hypospadias / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders / complications
  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders / etiology
  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders / physiopathology*
  • Phenotype
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Urogenital Abnormalities / complications