Gut immune system homeostasis involves diverse structural interactions among resident microbiota, the protective mucus layer, and a variety of cells (intestinal epithelial, lymphoid, and myeloid). Due to the substantial surface area in direct contact with an "external" environment and the diversity of xenobiotic, abiotic, and self-interactions coordinating to maintain gut homeostasis, there is enhanced potential for the generation of endogenous danger signals when this balance is lost. Here, we focus on the potential generation and reception of damage in the gut resulting from exposure to nanoparticles (NPs), common food and drug additives. Specifically, we describe recent evidence in the literature showing that certain NPs are potential generators of damage-associated molecular patterns, as well as potential immune-stimulating molecular patterns themselves.
Keywords: ATP; DAMP; NAMP; NLRP3; Nanoparticles; mtDNA.
©2019 Society for Leukocyte Biology.