The late-infantile Batten disease or late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the Cln2 gene leading to deficiency of lysosomal enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1). At present, available options for this fatal disorder are enzyme replacement therapy and gene therapy, which are extensively invasive and expensive. Our study demonstrates that 3-hydroxy-(2,2)-dimethyl butyrate (HDMB), a brain endogenous molecule, is capable of stimulating TPP1 expression and activity in mouse primary astrocytes and a neuronal cell line. HDMB activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), which, by forming heterodimer with Retinoid X receptor-α (RXRα), transcriptionally upregulated the Cln2 gene. Moreover, by using primary astrocytes from wild type, PPARα-/- and PPARβ-/- mice, we demonstrated that HDMB specifically required PPARα for inducing TPP1 expression. Finally, oral administration of HDMB to Cln2 heterozygous (Cln2+/-) mice led to a marked upregulation of TPP1 expression in the motor cortex and striatum in a PPARα-dependent fashion. Our study suggests that HDMB, a brain endogenous ligand of PPARα, might have therapeutic importance for LINCL treatment.
Keywords: 3-Hydroxy-(2,2)-dimethyl butyrate; LINCL; PPARα; TPP1.
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