Rationale and design of the Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV (REPRIEVE)

Am Heart J. 2019 Jun;212:23-35. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2018.12.016. Epub 2019 Mar 4.


Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more frequent among people with HIV (PWH) and may relate to traditional and nontraditional factors, including inflammation and immune activation. A critical need exists to develop effective strategies to prevent CVD in this population.

Methods: The Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV (REPRIEVE) (A5332) is a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a statin strategy for the primary prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in PWH with low to moderate traditional risk. At least 7,500 PWH, 40-75 years of age, on stable antiretroviral therapy, will be randomized to pitavastatin calcium (4 mg/d) or identical placebo and followed for up to 8 years. Participants are enrolled based on the 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level with a goal to identify a low- to moderate-risk population who might benefit from a pharmacologic CVD prevention strategy. Potential participants with a risk score ≤ 15% were eligible based on decreasing LDL-C thresholds for increasing risk score >7.5% (LDL-C <190 mg/dL for risk score <7.5%, LDL-C <160 mg/dL for risk score 7.6%-10%, and LDL-C<130 mg/dL for risk score 10.1%-15%). The primary objective is to determine effects on a composite end point of MACE. Formal and independent adjudication of clinical events will occur using standardized criteria. Key secondary end points include effects on MACE components, all-cause mortality, specified non-CVD events, AIDS and non-AIDS events, and safety.

Results: To date, REPRIEVE has enrolled >7,500 participants at approximately 120 sites across 11 countries, generating a diverse and representative population of PWH to investigate the primary objective of the trial.

Conclusions: REPRIEVE is the first trial investigating a primary CVD prevention strategy in PWH. REPRIEVE will inform the field of the efficacy and safety of a statin strategy among HIV-infected participants on antiretroviral therapy and provide critical information on CVD mechanisms and non-CVD events in PWH.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02344290.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial Protocol
  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Primary Prevention
  • Prospective Studies
  • Quinolines / adverse effects
  • Quinolines / therapeutic use*
  • Risk Factors


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
  • Quinolines
  • pitavastatin

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT02344290