Mutations in RNA-processing enzymes are increasingly linked to human disease. Telomerase RNA and related noncoding RNAs require 3' end-processing steps, including oligoadenylation. Germline mutations in poly(A)ribonuclease (PARN) cause accumulation of extended human telomerase RNA (hTR) species and precipitate dyskeratosis congenita and pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we develop nascent RNAend-seq to measure processing rates of RNA precursors. We find that mature hTR derives from extended precursors but that in PARN-mutant cells hTR maturation kinetically stalls and unprocessed precursors are degraded. Loss of poly(A)polymerase PAPD5 in PARN-mutant cells accelerates hTR maturation and restores hTR processing, indicating that oligoadenylation and deadenylation set rates of hTR maturation. The H/ACA domain mediates hTR maturation by precisely defining the 3' end, recruiting poly(A)polymerase activity, and conferring sensitivity to PARN regulation. These data reveal a feedforward circuit in which post-transcriptional oligoadenylation controls RNA maturation kinetics. Similar alterations in RNA processing rates may contribute to mechanisms of RNA-based human disease.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.