5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPM). It is mainly expressed in leukocytes and is part of the innate immune system. 5-LO can shuttle between the cytosol and the nucleus. Upon cell activation the protein translocates from soluble cellular compartments to the nuclear membrane. Besides FLAP which is required for cellular leukotriene and SPM formation, 5-LO interacts with other proteins like coactosin-like protein (CLP), Dicer, β-catenin and p53. In this review, the factors involved in the regulation of 5-LO expression, the role of 5-LO in the regulation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation and its biological functions apart from leukotriene and SPM formation are summarized.
Keywords: 5-Lipoxygenase; Dicer; Leukotriene; SMAD; Vitamin D; Wnt; p53; β-Catenin.
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