Evaluating Glucose Control With a Novel Composite Continuous Glucose Monitoring Index

J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2020 Mar;14(2):277-283. doi: 10.1177/1932296819838525. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Abstract

Objective: The objective was to describe a novel composite continuous glucose monitoring index (COGI) and to evaluate its utility, in adults with type 1 diabetes, during hybrid closed-loop (HCL) therapy and multiple daily injections (MDI) therapy combined with real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).

Methods: COGI consists of three key components of glucose control as assessed by CGM: Time in range (TIR), time below range (TBR), and glucose variability (GV) (weighted by 50%, 35% and 15%). COGI ranges from 0 to 100, where 1% increase of time <3.9 mmol/L (<70 mg/dl) is equivalent to 4.7% reduction of TIR between 3.9-10 mmol/L (70-180 mg/dl), and 0.5 mmol/L (9 mg/dl) increase in standard deviation is equivalent to 3% reduction in TIR.

Results: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) users with HbA1c >7.5-10%, had significantly higher COGI during 12 weeks of HCL compared to sensor-augmented pump therapy, mean (SD), 60.3 (8.6) versus 69.5 (6.9), P < .001. Similarly, in CSII users with HbA1c <7.5%, HCL improved COGI from 59.9 (11.2) to 74.8 (6.6), P < .001. In MDI users with HbA1c >7.5% to 9.9%, use of real-time CGM led to improved COGI, 49.8 (14.2) versus 58.2 (9.1), P < .0001. In MDI users with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, use of real-time CGM led to improved COGI, 53.4 (12.2) versus 66.7 (11.1), P < .001.

Conclusions: COGI summarizes three key aspects of CGM data into a concise metric that could be utilized to evaluate the quality of glucose control and to demonstrate the incremental benefit of a wide range of treatment modalities.

Keywords: closed-loop insulin delivery; continuous glucose monitoring; type 1 diabetes.