What is the best solution to manage vitamin D deficiency?

IUBMB Life. 2019 Sep;71(9):1190-1191. doi: 10.1002/iub.2038. Epub 2019 Apr 1.


Nowadays, vitamin D deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. In addition to the skeletal effects, it is now recognized that vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Currently, optimizing serum concentration of 25-hydroxy vitamin D with targeted strategies is becoming one the most interesting topics of public health nutrition. It is not possible for everyone to obtain sufficient serum concentrations of vitamin D by effective solar ultraviolet B exposure or usual dietary intake. Nutritional supplements and fortified foods as an available and cost-effective way to provide the recommended amount of vitamin D. Although, vitamin D supplementation is considered a good and simple short-term solution for vitamin D deficiency treatment; however, it seems that at a population level, food fortification, using staple foods, is the best method to increase vitamin D consumption and long-term treatment of vitamin D deficiency. © 2019 IUBMB Life, 71(9):1190-1191, 2019.

Keywords: flour; fortification; milk; oil; supplementation; vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Disease Management
  • Food, Fortified
  • Humans
  • Nutritional Status
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D / metabolism*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / diet therapy*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / pathology


  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D