Photonic Gauge Potential in One Cavity with Synthetic Frequency and Orbital Angular Momentum Dimensions

Phys Rev Lett. 2019 Mar 1;122(8):083903. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.083903.


We explore a single degenerate optical cavity supporting a synthetic two-dimensional space, which includes the frequency and the orbital angular momentum (OAM) axes of light. We create the effective gauge potential inside this synthetic space and show that the system exhibits topologically protected one-way edge states along the OAM axis at the boundaries of the frequency dimension. In this synthetic space, we present a robust generation and manipulation of entanglement between the frequency and OAM of photons. Our Letter shows that a higher-dimensional synthetic space involving multiple degrees of freedom of light can be achieved in a "zero-dimensional" spatial structure, pointing towards a unique platform to explore topological photonics and to realize potential applications in optical communications and quantum information processing.