Background: Research over the past decade has focused on the role of Klotho as a cardio protective agent that prevents the effects of aging on the heart and reduces the burden of cardiovascular disease CVD. The role of the interaction between fibroblast growth factor 23-(FGF-23)/Klotho in Klotho-mediated actions is still under debate. The main objective was to ascertain the potential use of plasmatic Klotho and FGF23 as markers for CKD-associated cardiac disease and mortality.
Methods: This was a prospective analysis conducted in an outpatient diabetic nephropathy clinic, enrolling 107 diabetic patients with stage 2⁻3 CKD. Patients were divided into three groups according to their left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness.
Results: Multinomial regression analysis demonstrated that low Klotho and higher FGF-23 levels were linked to a greater risk of concentric hypertrophy. In the generalized linear model (GLM), Klotho, FGF-23 and cardiac geometry groups were statistically significant as independent variables of cardiovascular hospitalization (p = 0.007). According to the Cox regression model, fatal cardiovascular events were associated with the following cardiac geometric classifications; eccentric hypertrophy (p = 0.050); concentric hypertrophy (p = 0.041), and serum phosphate ≥ 3.6 mg/dL (p = 0.025), FGF-23 ≥ 168 (p = 0.0149), α-klotho < 313 (p = 0.044).
Conclusions: In our population, Klotho and FGF23 are associated with cardiovascular risk in the early stages of CKD.
Keywords: CKD; CVD; FGF-23; LVMI; klotho.