Combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has revolutionized the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection. Taken daily, ART prevents and suppresses the infection. However, ART interruption almost invariably leads to rebound viremia in infected individuals due to a long-lived latent reservoir of integrated proviruses. Therefore, ART must be administered on a life-long basis. Here we review recent preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that immunotherapy may be an alternative or an adjuvant to ART because, in addition to preventing new infections, anti-HIV-1 antibodies clear the virus, directly kill infected cells and produce immune complexes that can enhance host immunity to the virus.