Objective: To identify the feasibility of using a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) for the detection and localization of hip fractures on plain frontal pelvic radiographs (PXRs). Hip fracture is a leading worldwide health problem for the elderly. A missed diagnosis of hip fracture on radiography leads to a dismal prognosis. The application of a DCNN to PXRs can potentially improve the accuracy and efficiency of hip fracture diagnosis.
Methods: A DCNN was pretrained using 25,505 limb radiographs between January 2012 and December 2017. It was retrained using 3605 PXRs between August 2008 and December 2016. The accuracy, sensitivity, false-negative rate, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were evaluated on 100 independent PXRs acquired during 2017. The authors also used the visualization algorithm gradient-weighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM) to confirm the validity of the model.
Results: The algorithm achieved an accuracy of 91%, a sensitivity of 98%, a false-negative rate of 2%, and an AUC of 0.98 for identifying hip fractures. The visualization algorithm showed an accuracy of 95.9% for lesion identification.
Conclusions: A DCNN not only detected hip fractures on PXRs with a low false-negative rate but also had high accuracy for localizing fracture lesions. The DCNN might be an efficient and economical model to help clinicians make a diagnosis without interrupting the current clinical pathway.
Key points: • Automated detection of hip fractures on frontal pelvic radiographs may facilitate emergent screening and evaluation efforts for primary physicians. • Good visualization of the fracture site by Grad-CAM enables the rapid integration of this tool into the current medical system. • The feasibility and efficiency of utilizing a deep neural network have been confirmed for the screening of hip fractures.
Keywords: Algorithms; Hip fractures; Machine learning; Neural network (computer).