Background: Attending physician preceptors are accountable to many stakeholder groups, yet stakeholders' views about what the preceptor role entails have not been sufficiently considered.
Objective: To explore stakeholder groups' unique perspectives of the preceptor role.
Design: Qualitative study with a constructivist orientation.
Participants: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 73 participants from two university teaching hospitals between October 2012 and March 2014. Participants included representatives from seven stakeholder groups: patients and their families, allied healthcare providers, bedside nurses, nurse managers, medical students, internal medicine residents, and preceptors.
Approach: An inductive thematic analysis was conducted where researchers coded transcripts, abstracted codes into themes, and then mapped themes onto six focus areas: role dimensions, role performance, stressors and rewards, mastery, fulfillment, and impact on others. Two authors then identified "recurrent themes" (emerging in two or more focus areas) and compared them across groups to identify "unique themes" (emerging from a maximum of two stakeholder groups). "Unique thematic emphases" (unique themes that would not have emerged if a stakeholder group was not interviewed) are described.
Key results: Patients and their families emphasized preceptors' ultimate authority. Allied healthcare providers described preceptors as engaged collaborators involved in discharge planning and requiring a sense of humor. Bedside nurses highlighted the need for role standardization. Nurse managers stressed preceptors' need for humanism. Medical students highlighted preceptors' emotional labor and their influence on learners' emotional well-being. Residents emphasized preceptors' responsibilities to multiple stakeholders. Preceptors described lifelong learning and exercising control over one's environment.
Conclusions: Various stakeholder groups hold unique and nuanced views of the attending physician preceptor role. These views could broaden formal role guidance for medical education and patient care. This study generated real-world, practical examples of what stakeholders feel are important preceptor skills. These skills should be practiced, taught, and role modeled in this clinical setting.
Keywords: health services research; medical education–faculty development; stakeholder engagement.