Secretoneurin Is an Endogenous Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II Inhibitor That Attenuates Ca 2+-Dependent Arrhythmia

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2019 Apr;12(4):e007045. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.118.007045.


Background: Circulating SN (secretoneurin) concentrations are increased in patients with myocardial dysfunction and predict poor outcome. Because SN inhibits CaMKIIδ (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ) activity, we hypothesized that upregulation of SN in patients protects against cardiomyocyte mechanisms of arrhythmia.

Methods: Circulating levels of SN and other biomarkers were assessed in patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT; n=8) and in resuscitated patients after ventricular arrhythmia-induced cardiac arrest (n=155). In vivo effects of SN were investigated in CPVT mice (RyR2 [ryanodine receptor 2]-R2474S) using adeno-associated virus-9-induced overexpression. Interactions between SN and CaMKIIδ were mapped using pull-down experiments, mutagenesis, ELISA, and structural homology modeling. Ex vivo actions were tested in Langendorff hearts and effects on Ca2+ homeostasis examined by fluorescence (fluo-4) and patch-clamp recordings in isolated cardiomyocytes.

Results: SN levels were elevated in patients with CPVT and following ventricular arrhythmia-induced cardiac arrest. In contrast to NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) and hs-TnT (high-sensitivity troponin T), circulating SN levels declined after resuscitation, as the risk of a new arrhythmia waned. Myocardial pro-SN expression was also increased in CPVT mice, and further adeno-associated virus-9-induced overexpression of SN attenuated arrhythmic induction during stress testing with isoproterenol. Mechanistic studies mapped SN binding to the substrate binding site in the catalytic region of CaMKIIδ. Accordingly, SN attenuated isoproterenol induced autophosphorylation of Thr287-CaMKIIδ in Langendorff hearts and inhibited CaMKIIδ-dependent RyR phosphorylation. In line with CaMKIIδ and RyR inhibition, SN treatment decreased Ca2+ spark frequency and dimensions in cardiomyocytes during isoproterenol challenge, and reduced the incidence of Ca2+ waves, delayed afterdepolarizations, and spontaneous action potentials. SN treatment also lowered the incidence of early afterdepolarizations during isoproterenol; an effect paralleled by reduced magnitude of L-type Ca2+ current.

Conclusions: SN production is upregulated in conditions with cardiomyocyte Ca2+ dysregulation and offers compensatory protection against cardiomyocyte mechanisms of arrhythmia, which may underlie its putative use as a biomarker in at-risk patients.

Keywords: calcium; calmodulin; heart failure; secretoneurin; tachycardia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Calcium Signaling
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 / metabolism
  • Heart Arrest / metabolism*
  • Heart Arrest / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / metabolism
  • Natriuretic Peptide, Brain / metabolism
  • Neuropeptides / metabolism*
  • Patch-Clamp Techniques
  • Peptide Fragments / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel / metabolism
  • Secretogranin II / metabolism*
  • Tachycardia, Ventricular / metabolism*
  • Tachycardia, Ventricular / physiopathology
  • Troponin T / metabolism
  • Up-Regulation


  • Biomarkers
  • Neuropeptides
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel
  • Secretogranin II
  • Troponin T
  • pro-brain natriuretic peptide (1-76)
  • Natriuretic Peptide, Brain
  • secretoneurin
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2
  • Calcium

Supplementary concepts

  • Polymorphic catecholergic ventricular tachycardia