Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
, 38 (7), 1211-1221

Clostridium Difficile Infection: Review

Affiliations
Review

Clostridium Difficile Infection: Review

Jacek Czepiel et al. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis.

Abstract

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacillus, which is widely distributed in the intestinal tract of humans and animals and in the environment. In the last decade, the frequency and severity of C. difficile infection has been increasing worldwide to become one of the most common hospital-acquired infections. Transmission of this pathogen occurs by the fecal-oral route and the most important risk factors include antibiotic therapy, old age, and hospital or nursing home stay. The clinical picture is diverse and ranges from asymptomatic carrier status, through various degrees of diarrhea, to the most severe, life threatening colitis resulting with death. Diagnosis is based on direct detection of C. difficile toxins in feces, most commonly with the use of EIA assay, but no single test is suitable as a stand-alone test confirming CDI. Antibiotics of choice are vancomycin, fidaxomicin, and metronidazole, though metronidazole is considered as inferior. The goal of this review is to update physicians on current scientific knowledge of C. difficile infection, focusing also on fecal microbiota transplantation which is a promising therapy.

Keywords: Antibiotic-associated diarrhea; Clostridium difficile; Diagnosis; Fecal transplantation; Treatment.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Flow chart of CDI diagnosis

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 4 PubMed Central articles

References

    1. Oren A, Garrity GM. List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2017;67:3140–3143. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002278. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Lawson PA, Citron DM, Tyrrell KL, Finegold SM. Reclassification of Clostridium difficile as Clostridioides difficile (Hall and O'Toole 1935) Preevot 1938. Anaerobe. 2016;40:95–99. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.06.008. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Leffler DA, Lamont JT. Clostridium difficile infection. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:287–288. - PubMed
    1. Hall IC, O'Toole E. Intestinal flora in newborn infants with description of a new pathogenic anaerobe. Am J Dis Child. 1935;49:390–402. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.1935.01970020105010. - DOI
    1. Tedesco FJ, Barton RW, Alpers DH. Clindamycin-associated colitis. A prospective study. Ann Intern Med. 1974;81:429–433. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-81-4-429. - DOI - PubMed

MeSH terms

Substances

Feedback