Objective: To evaluate plasma acylcarnitine profiles and their relationships with progression of carotid artery atherosclerosis among individuals with and without HIV infection.
Design: Prospective cohort studies of 499 HIV-positive and 206 HIV-negative individuals from the Women's Interagency HIV Study and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.
Methods: Twenty-four acylcarnitine species were measured in plasma samples of participants at baseline. Carotid artery plaque was assessed using repeated B-mode carotid artery ultrasound imaging in 2004-2013. We examined the associations of individual and aggregate short-chain (C2-C7), medium-chain (C8-C14) and long-chain acylcarnitines (C16-C26) with incident carotid artery plaque over 7 years.
Results: Among 24 acylcarnitine species, C8-carnitines and C20 : 4-carnitines showed significantly lower levels comparing HIV-positive to HIV-negative individuals (false discovery rate adjusted P < 0.05); and C20-carnitines and C26-carnitines showed significantly higher levels in HIV positive using antiretroviral therapy than those without antiretroviral therapy (false discovery rate adjusted P < 0.05). In the univariate analyses, higher aggregated short-chain and long-chain acylcarnitine scores were associated with increased risk of carotid artery plaque [risk ratios (RRs) = 1.22 (95% confidence interval 1.02-1.45) and 1.20 (1.02-1.41) per SD increment, respectively]. The association for the short-chain acylcarnitine score remained significant [RR = 1.23 (1.05-1.44)] after multivariate adjustment (including traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors). This association was more evident in HIV-positive individuals without persistent viral suppression [RR = 1.37 (1.11-1.69)] compared with those with persistent viral suppression during follow-up [RR = 1.03 (0.76-1.40)] or HIV-negative individuals [RR = 1.02 (0.69-1.52)].
Conclusion: In two HIV cohorts, plasma levels of most acylcarnitines were not significantly different between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals. However, higher levels of aggregated short-chain acylcarnitines were associated with progression of carotid artery atherosclerosis.