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. 2019 May 15;30(5):1371-1384.
doi: 10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.9b00136. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Penetration and Uptake of Nanoparticles in 3D Tumor Spheroids

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Penetration and Uptake of Nanoparticles in 3D Tumor Spheroids

Aleksandra Tchoryk et al. Bioconjug Chem. .

Abstract

Animal models are effective for assessing tumor localization of nanosystems but difficult to use for studying penetration beyond the vasculature. Here, we have used well-characterized HCT116 colorectal cancer spheroids to study the effect of nanoparticle (NP) physicochemical properties on penetration and uptake. Incubation of spheroids with Hoechst 33342 resulted in a dye gradient, which facilitated discrimination between the populations of cells in the core and at the periphery of spheroids by flow cytometry. This approach was used to compare doxorubicin and liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx) and a range of model poly(styrene) nanoparticles of different sizes (30 nm, 50 nm, 100 nm) and with different surface chemistries (50 nm uniform plain, carboxylated, aminated and a range of NPs and polyethylene glycol modified NPs prepared from a promising new functionalized biodegradable polymer (poly(glycerol-adipate), PGA). Unmodified poly(styrene) nanoparticles (30 nm/50 nm) were able to penetrate to the core of HCT116 spheroids more efficiently than larger poly(styrene) nanoparticles (100 nm). Surprisingly, penetration of 30 and 50 nm particles was as good as clinically relevant doxorubicin concentrations. However, penetration was reduced with higher surface charge. PGA NPs of 100 nm showed similar penetration into spheroids as 50 nm poly(styrene) nanoparticles, which may be related to polymer flexibility. PEG surface modification of polymeric particles significantly improved penetration into the spheroid core. The new model combining the use of spheroids Hoechst staining and flow cytometry was a useful model for assessing NP penetration and gives useful insights into the effects of NPs' physical properties when designing nanomedicines.

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