A retrospective clinical and microbial analysis of 32 patients with bilomas

BMC Gastroenterol. 2019 Apr 4;19(1):50. doi: 10.1186/s12876-019-0968-2.


Background: Bilomas are defined collections of bile fluids mainly caused by iatrogenic injuries of the bile duct system. Owing to the infrequency of this disease, studies addressing bilomas are rare.

Methods: By using an endoscopic database, this retrospective study identified 32 patients with bilomas treated between 2004 to 2015, in order to analyse aetiology, clinical presentation, spectrum of pathogens, and resolution rate of bilomas.

Results: 65.6% of the study population (21/32) developed bilomas after surgery and 21.9% (7/32) after endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). Icterus, fever, and abdominal pain were the leading symptoms. 93.9% (46/49) of microbiological bile cultures revealed a positive microbiology. The predominant microorganisms were the group of Enterobacteriaceae (43.0%, 52/121), followed by Enterococcus spp. (32.2%, 39/121), and Candida spp. (9.1%, 11/121). Multiresistant bacteria like Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from one quarter of all patients. Single or multimodal treatment resulted in an overall complication rate of 4.8% (9/188). Clinical follow-up analysis showed a complete resolution rate of 78.3% for interventional therapy and 80% in the non-interventional group.

Conclusions: Pathogen spectrum of bilomas mainly comprises the group of Enterobacteriacae and Enterococcus spp., with a high proportion of multiresistant bacteria. Different interventional approaches are available for biloma drainage, which seem to be safe and effective for most patients.

Trial registration: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00015208 , retrospectively registered.

Keywords: Bile; Bilioma; Biloma; Pathogen spectrum.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Bile / microbiology*
  • Bile Duct Diseases / diagnosis
  • Bile Duct Diseases / microbiology*
  • Bile Duct Diseases / therapy
  • Drainage / methods
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
  • Enterobacteriaceae / isolation & purification
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / diagnosis
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / therapy
  • Enterococcus / isolation & purification
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iatrogenic Disease
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Young Adult