Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Etiologies and Management

Mayo Clin Proc. 2019 Apr;94(4):697-703. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.01.022.


Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a medical condition routinely encountered in clinical practice. Overt upper gastrointestinal bleeding usually presents as melena or hematemesis but can also present as hematochezia in cases of brisk bleeding. The initial evaluation of a patient with suspected upper gastrointestinal bleeding begins with assessment of hemodynamic status, identification of potential risk factors, and appropriate triage of level of care. After resuscitation measures, endoscopic evaluation can be performed to diagnose and potentially treat the source of bleeding. Risk factors that increase the propensity for recurrent bleeding should be identified and addressed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Disease Management
  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / complications
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / diagnosis*
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / therapy*
  • Hematemesis / etiology
  • Hemostasis, Endoscopic / methods*
  • Humans
  • Melena / etiology
  • Risk Factors