The molecular machinery of regulated cell death

Cell Res. 2019 May;29(5):347-364. doi: 10.1038/s41422-019-0164-5. Epub 2019 Apr 4.


Cells may die from accidental cell death (ACD) or regulated cell death (RCD). ACD is a biologically uncontrolled process, whereas RCD involves tightly structured signaling cascades and molecularly defined effector mechanisms. A growing number of novel non-apoptotic forms of RCD have been identified and are increasingly being implicated in various human pathologies. Here, we critically review the current state of the art regarding non-apoptotic types of RCD, including necroptosis, pyroptosis, ferroptosis, entotic cell death, netotic cell death, parthanatos, lysosome-dependent cell death, autophagy-dependent cell death, alkaliptosis and oxeiptosis. The in-depth comprehension of each of these lethal subroutines and their intercellular consequences may uncover novel therapeutic targets for the avoidance of pathogenic cell loss.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Caspases / metabolism
  • DNA / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Regulated Cell Death*


  • Antioxidants
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • DNA
  • Protein Kinases
  • Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Caspases