Peritoneal metastases may occur from a majority of cancers that occur within the abdomen or pelvis. When cancer spread to the peritoneal surfaces is documented, a decision regarding palliation versus an aggressive approach using cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) must be made. This decision is dependent on a well-defined group of prognostic indicators. In addition to treatment, prevention of peritoneal metastases may be an option. The clinical and pathologic features of a primary cancer can be used to select perioperative treatments that may prevent cancer cells within the abdomen and pelvis from progressing to established peritoneal metastases. In some clinical situations with appendiceal and colorectal cancers, the clinical or histopathologic features may indicate that second-look surgery plus perioperative chemotherapy should occur. Peritoneal metastases should always be considered by the multidisciplinary team for treatment or prevention.
Keywords: Appendiceal cancer; Cancer prevention; Colon cancer; Gastric cancer; Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma; Peritoneal metastases; Recurrent ovarian cancer.