Mast cells (MCs) are located in the periphery as well as the central nervous system (CNS). Known for sterile inflammation, MCs play a critical role in neuroinflammation, which is facilitated by their close proximity to nerve fibers in the periphery and meninges of the spinal cord and the brain. Multifaceted activation of MCs releasing neuropeptides, cytokines and other mediators has direct effects on the neural system as well as neurovascular interactions. Emerging studies have identified the release of extracellular traps, a phenomenon traditionally meant to ensnare invading pathogens, as a cause of MC-induced neural injury. In this review article, we will discuss mechanisms of MC interaction with the nervous system through degranulation, de novo synthesis, extracellular vesicles (EVs), tunneling nanotubes, and extracellular traps with implications across a variety of pathological conditions.
Keywords: blood brain barrier; endothelial cell; inflammation; mast cell; nervous system; pain.
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