Granulomatous Angiitis: Twenty Years Later

Neurol Clin. 2019 May;37(2):267-277. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.011.


Granulomatous inflammation, the prototypical histopathology of adult and childhood vasculitis, is characterized by inflammation of blood vessels accompanied by giant cells and epithelioid cells in the walls of cerebral vessels ranging from small leptomeningeal veins to large named cerebral arteries. Headache, hemiparesis, mental changes, abnormal cerebrospinal fluid protein content, and pleocytosis are suggestive features that warrant brain and leptomeningeal biopsy to make the diagnosis certain and begin cytotoxic therapy to improve outcome.

Keywords: Central nervous system; Granulomatous angiitis; Stroke; Vasculitis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Vasculitis, Central Nervous System*