Immune Phenotype Correlates With Survival in Patients With GBM Treated With Standard Temozolomide-based Therapy and Immunotherapy

Anticancer Res. 2019 Apr;39(4):2043-2051. doi: 10.21873/anticanres.13315.


Background/aim: The need for more effective treatment modalities that can improve the clinical outcome of patients with glioblastoma multiforme remains imperative. Dendritic cell vaccination is a fast-developing treatment modality, currently under exploration. Functional immune cell subpopulations may play a role in the final outcome.

Materials and methods: Data from 101 patients drawn from the HGG-2010 trial, including baseline patient characteristics and fluorescence-activated cell sorting of immune cell subpopulations, were analyzed by statistical and machine-learning methods.

Results: The analysis revealed strong correlations between immune profiles and overall survival, when the extent of resection and the vaccination schedule were used as stratification variables.

Conclusion: A systematic, in silico workflow detecting strong and statistically significant correlations between overall survival and immune profile-derived quantities obtained at the start of dendritic cell vaccination was devised. The derived correlations could serve as a basis for the identification of prognostic markers discriminating between potential long- and short-term survivors of patients with glioblastoma multiforme.

Keywords: GBM; biomarker; circulating lymphocytic phenotype; dendritic cell vaccination; glioblastoma multiforme; immunotherapy; malignant glioma; overall survival.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use*
  • Brain Neoplasms / immunology*
  • Brain Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology*
  • Female
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Glioblastoma / immunology*
  • Glioblastoma / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy
  • Leukapheresis
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenotype
  • Temozolomide / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vaccination


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
  • Temozolomide