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Review
. 2019 Apr 6;18(1):91.
doi: 10.1186/s12944-019-1035-2.

Dietary Total Fat, Fatty Acids Intake, and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies

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Free PMC article
Review

Dietary Total Fat, Fatty Acids Intake, and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies

Yongjian Zhu et al. Lipids Health Dis. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between dietary fat intake and cardiovascular disease. However, dietary recommendations based on systematic review and meta-analysis might be more credible.

Methods and results: Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane library were searched up to July 1st 2018 for cohort studies reporting associations of dietary fat intake and risk of CVDs. By comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of fat or fatty acids intake, we found that higher dietary trans fatty acids (TFA) intake was associated with increased risk of CVDs [RR:1.14(1.08-1.21)]. However, no association was observed between total fat, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), saturated fatty acids (SFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and risk of CVDs. Subgroup analysis found a cardio-protective effect of PUFA in the studies that has been followed up more than 10 years [0.95(0.91-0.99), I2 = 62.4%]. Dose-response analysis suggested that the risk of CVDs increased 16% [1.16 (1.07-1.25), Plinearity = 0.033] for an increment of 2% energy/day of TFA intake.

Conclusions: This current meta-analysis of cohort studies suggested that total fat, SFA, MUFA, and PUFA intake were not associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, we found that higher TFA intake is associated with greater risk of CVDs in a dose-response fashion. Furthermore, the subgroup analysis found a cardio-protective effect of PUFA in studies followed up for more than 10 years.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Dose-response; Fat; Fatty acids; Meta-analysis.

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The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Search, screening and selection process of prospective cohort studies of dietary total fat and major fat subclasses and risk of cardiovascular disease
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Forest plots of cardiovascular disease for the highest versus lowest categories of dietary total fat intake
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Forest plots of cardiovascular disease for the highest versus lowest categories of dietary trans fatty acids (a), saturated fatty acids (a), monounsaturated fatty acids (b), and polyunsaturated fatty acids intake (b)
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Dose-response analyses of the linear association between dietary total fat (a), trans fatty acids (b), saturated fatty acids (c), monounsaturated fatty acids (d), and polyunsaturated fatty acids intake (e) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (% energy/day)
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
Dose-response analyses of the linear association between dietary total fat (a), trans fatty acids (b), saturated fatty acids (c), monounsaturated fatty acids (d), and polyunsaturated fatty acids intake (e) and the risk of cardiovascular disease(g/d)

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