Study Design and Baseline Profiles of Participants in the Uonuma CKD Cohort Study in Niigata, Japan

J Epidemiol. 2020 Apr 5;30(4):170-176. doi: 10.2188/jea.JE20180220. Epub 2019 Apr 6.


Background: Evidence for primary prevention of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is insufficient. The population-based prospective Uonuma CKD cohort study aims to explore associations of lifestyle and other risk factors with CKD. We report here the study design and baseline profiles.

Methods: All 67,322 residents aged ≥40 years in Minamiuonuma City, Uonuma City, and Yuzawa Town, Niigata Prefecture, Japan and 11,406 participants who attended local health-check examinations were targeted for baseline questionnaire and biochemical sampling, respectively. Information was gathered from 43,217 (64.2%) questionnaires and 8,052 (70.6%) biochemical samples; 6,945 participants consented to both questionnaire and biochemical sampling at baseline, conducted between fiscal years 2012 and 2015. Participants provided information regarding sociodemographic, lifestyle, and self-reported outcomes. Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were measured. The primary outcome is CKD based on self-report and biochemical/clinical diagnosis.

Results: Mean age of questionnaire respondents was 63.3 (standard deviation [SD], 12.5) years for men and 64.3 (SD, 13.3) years for women. Among participants who submitted urine samples, median ACR was 10.0 (interquartile range [IQR], 5.0-24.0) mg/g for men and 13.0 (IQR, 7.7-27.0) mg/g for women, and median eGFR was 73.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 (IQR, 63.5-84.5) for men and 73.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 (IQR, 64.4-83.5) for women. ACR 30 mg/g or more was found in 1,741 participants (21.7%) and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in 1,361 participants (16.9%).

Conclusion: The Uonuma CKD cohort study was established to investigate the impact of lifestyle on CKD development and to provide data for preventing the onset and progression of CKD.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease; cohort studies; lifestyle; risk factors.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cohort Studies
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate / physiology
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Life Style*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Population Surveillance / methods*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / diagnosis
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / physiopathology
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Creatinine