Levamisole is an adulterant found in nearly 70% of cocaine in the United States. The concomitant use of levamisole and cocaine leads to a distinct clinical syndrome that typically manifests as agranulocytosis, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and elevated antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) levels. Systemic involvement has also been rarely reported with this syndrome. This is a case of a 51-year-old woman with chronic cocaine use who initially presented with multiple cutaneous ulcerations and was later found to have pulmonary and renal involvement. Infectious workup was unrevealing and autoimmune workup revealed highly elevated levels of perinuclear ANCA. Due to continuous cocaine use despite counseling, the patient was readmitted with worsening pulmonary and renal manifestations requiring initiation of immunosuppressive therapy.
Keywords: ANCA antibody; cocaine; cocaine-levamisole vasculitis; levamisole.