Introduction: White spot lesion is a demineralization of the enamel that appears as a white spot on the surfaces of the tooth. The cause of this spot is determined by the activity of the bacterial plaque and it represents the initial stage of a carious lesion. This lesion is a common side effect for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances mainly because of the brackets' position that favors the accumulation of plaque that ultimately leads to the formation of the white spot.
Methods: We conducted a search on a single database, PubMed. "Orthodontic", "white spot lesions", "enamel demineralization treatment" and "remineralization" were the search terms used. We found 324 articles, but we took in consideration only the ones from the last 10 years, which resulted in 223 articles.
Results: The first step after research was article selection: first by scrutinizing the title and secondly by reviewing the abstracts or full texts. The exclusion criteria were: meta-analysis, reviews, original articles regarding prevention of white spot lesions and their prevalence or incidence. We included the articles that seemed relevant for the treatment of white spot lesions, made either on extracted teeth either on orthodontic patients. We found 75 articles to be eligible for this research and we eliminated 5 because of the lack of an abstract or full text and a further 22 were rejected because they did not fit the aforementioned criteria.
Conclusion: Although some traditional methods for the treatment of white spot lesions seem to have undesirable results, nowadays with new technologies and thorough investigations in nanotechnology, the eradication of the lesion appears to be short term.
Keywords: enamel demineralization treatment; orthodontic; remineralization; white spot lesion.
Elastomeric-ligated vs Self-Ligating Appliances: A Pilot Study Examining Microbial Colonization and White Spot Lesion Formation After 1 Year of Orthodontic TreatmentT Buck et al. Orthodontics (Chic.) 12 (2), 108-21. PMID 21935504. - Randomized Controlled TrialATP-driven bioluminescence can be used as an accurate assessment of total plaque bacteria in orthodontic patients. After 1 year of orthodontic treatment for patients in t …
Effectiveness of a Sealant Compared With No Sealant in Preventing Enamel Demineralization in Patients With Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: A Prospective Clinical TrialMT O'Reilly et al. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 143 (6), 837-44. PMID 23726334. - Randomized Controlled TrialThe sealant did not prevent all white spot lesions for the full duration of treatment. The sealant demonstrated a clinically small but statistically significant ability t …
Remineralizing Potential of CPP-ACP in White Spot Lesions - A Systematic ReviewK Indrapriyadharshini et al. Indian J Dent Res 29 (4), 487-496. PMID 30127201.A high level evidence of remineralizing potential of CPP-ACP on naturally occurring white spot lesion and WSL post orthodontic treatment was found in comparison with plac …
Fluoride-Releasing Materials to Prevent White Spot Lesions Around Orthodontic Brackets: A Systematic ReviewPL Nascimento et al. Braz Dent J 27 (1), 101-7. PMID 27007355. - ReviewThe relation between orthodontic fixed appliances use and enamel demineralization is well established. Different preventive approaches have been suggested to this problem …
Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions During and After Treatment With Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: A Systematic Literature ReviewK Lopatiene et al. J Oral Maxillofac Res 7 (2), e1. PMID 27489605. - ReviewEarly detection of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment would allow implementing preventive measures to control the demineralization process before lesions pro …
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