Bisphenol S (2,2-bisulfone, BPS) and Bisphenol F (2,2-bis [4-hydroxyphenol]methane, BPF) are analogs of Bisphenol A (2,2-bis[4-hydroxyphenyl]propane, BPA), a widely used endocrine disrupting compound present in polycarbonate plastics, thermal receipts and epoxy resins that line food cans. Here we examined effects of BPA, BPS, and BPF in low concentrations on differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. We also fed adult male mice chow with one of three doses of BPF (0, 0.5, 5, 50 mg/kg chow, or approximately 0.044, 0.44 and 4.4 mg/kg body weight per day) for 12 weeks, collected body weights, food intake, and tested for glucose tolerance. The doses of BPF used produced mean concentrations of 0, 6.2, 43.6, and 561 ng/mL in plasma. In 3T3-L1 cells BPS had the greatest effects, along with BPA, both increased expression of several genes required for preadipocyte differentiation over 12 days in culture. In contrast, BPF decreased expression of several genes late in differentiation. This dichotomy was also reflected in lipid accumulation as BPA and BPS treated cells had elevated lipid concentrations compared to controls or cells treated with BPF. Male mice fed either the highest or lowest concentrations of BPF gained less weight than controls with no effects on glucose levels or glucose tolerance. Plasma levels of BPF reflected doses in food with no overlap between doses. In summary, our results suggest that BPS has a strong potential to be obesogenic while effects of BPF are subtler and potentially in the opposite direction.
Keywords: Alternatives to BPA; BPF; Bisphenol; Diabetes; Fat; Metabolism.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.