Regulation of Noise-Induced Loss of Serotonin Transporters with Resveratrol in a Rat Model Using 4-[ 18 F]-ADAM/Small-Animal Positron Emission Tomography

Molecules. 2019 Apr 5;24(7):1344. doi: 10.3390/molecules24071344.


Serotonin (5-HT) plays a crucial role in modulating the afferent fiber discharge rate in the inferior colliculus, auditory cortex, and other nuclei of the ascending auditory system. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol phytoalexin, can inhibit serotonin transporters (SERT) to increase synaptic 5-HT levels. In this study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol on noise-induced damage in the serotonergic system. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and exposed to an 8-kHz tone at 116 dB for 3.5 h. Resveratrol (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection [IP]) and citalopram (20 mg/kg, IP), a specific SERT inhibitor used as a positive control, were administered once a day for four consecutive days, with the first treatment occurring 2 days before noise exposure. Auditory brainstem response testing and positron emission tomography (PET) with N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-[18F]fluorophenylthio)benzylamine (4-[18F]-ADAM, a specific radioligand for SERT) were used to evaluate functionality of the auditory system and integrity of the serotonergic system, respectively, before and after noise exposure. Finally, immunohistochemistry was performed 1 day after the last PET scan. Our results indicate that noise-induced serotonergic fiber loss occurred in multiple brain regions including the midbrain, thalamus, hypothalamus, striatum, auditory cortex, and frontal cortex. This noise-induced damage to the serotonergic system was ameliorated in response to treatment with resveratrol and citalopram. However, noise exposure increased the hearing threshold in the rats regardless of drug treatment status. We conclude that resveratrol has protective effects against noise-induced loss of SERT.

Keywords: 4-[18F]-ADAM; noise-induced hearing loss; resveratrol; serotonin transporters; small-animal PET.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Brain / pathology
  • Corpus Striatum / drug effects
  • Corpus Striatum / metabolism
  • Corpus Striatum / pathology
  • Fluorine Radioisotopes / administration & dosage
  • Fluorine Radioisotopes / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Positron-Emission Tomography
  • Rats
  • Resveratrol / administration & dosage*
  • Serotonin / chemistry
  • Serotonin / metabolism*
  • Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins / drug effects
  • Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins / metabolism*
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors / administration & dosage*
  • Tissue Distribution / drug effects


  • Fluorine Radioisotopes
  • Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
  • Serotonin
  • Resveratrol