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Optimized Dyeing Process for Enhancing the Functionalities of Spent Coffee Dyed Wool Fabrics Using a Facile Extraction Process

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Optimized Dyeing Process for Enhancing the Functionalities of Spent Coffee Dyed Wool Fabrics Using a Facile Extraction Process

Jihyun Bae et al. Polymers (Basel).

Abstract

Spent coffee grounds are the byproduct of coffee brewing and are generally discarded as waste. However, spent coffee has high levels of organic compounds that have multiple biological effects, including antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In this light, spent coffee grounds were tested for fabric dyeing to both functionalize as well as color the fabrics. The dyeing solution was prepared by extracting spent coffee grounds collected from a local coffee house by using a manual espresso machine. The spent coffee extract was applied to wool fabrics using a laboratory infrared dyeing machine. After the dyeing process was completed, the fabrics were mordanted with a tannic acid aqueous solution. To optimize the dyeing conditions, the times and temperatures during the process were varied, and the functionalities and other properties including color and strength of the wool fabrics dyed with the spent coffee extract were investigated. The wool fabrics dyed with the spent coffee extract were significantly colored, and the color withstands the effect of washing and light exposure. Moreover, the dyeing process with the spent coffee extract and the mordanting process with tannic acid gave the wool fabrics antibacterial and antioxidant properties.

Keywords: antibacterial property; antioxidant property; dyeing; spent coffee; tannin; wool.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
High-performance liquid chromatograms of standards (a) and spent coffee extract (b) at 258 nm. 1: trigonelline; 2: gallic acid; 3: protocatechuic acid; 4: chlorogenic acid; and 5: caffeine.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FT–IR-ATR) spectra of wool fabrics dyed with spent coffee extract for 60 min as a function of dyeing temperature (all dying samples were mordanted with 1 wt % tannic acid aqueous solution): (a) untreated, (b) 60 °C, (c) 90 °C, and (d) 120 °C.
Figure 3
Figure 3
FT–IR-ATR spectra of wool fabrics dyed with spent coffee extract at 90 °C for 60 min: (a) untreated, (b) not mordanted, and (c) mordanted with 1 wt % tannic acid.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Color strength (K/S) values of wool fabrics dyed with spent coffee extract at 90 °C as a function of dyeing time (all dying samples were mordanted with 1 wt % tannic acid aqueous solution): (a) untreated, (b) 30 min, (c) 60 min, (d) 90 min, and (e) 120 min.
Figure 5
Figure 5
K/S values of wool fabrics dyed with spent coffee extract for 60 min as a function of dyeing temperature (all dying samples were mordanted with 1 wt % tannic acid aqueous solution): (a) untreated, (b) 60 °C, (c) 90 °C, and (d) 120 °C.

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