Succinate is a signaling metabolite sensed extracellularly by succinate receptor 1 (SUNCR1). The accumulation of succinate in macrophages is known to activate a pro-inflammatory program; however, the contribution of SUCNR1 to macrophage phenotype and function has remained unclear. Here we found that activation of SUCNR1 had a critical role in the anti-inflammatory responses in macrophages. Myeloid-specific deficiency in SUCNR1 promoted a local pro-inflammatory phenotype, disrupted glucose homeostasis in mice fed a normal chow diet, exacerbated the metabolic consequences of diet-induced obesity and impaired adipose-tissue browning in response to cold exposure. Activation of SUCNR1 promoted an anti-inflammatory phenotype in macrophages and boosted the response of these cells to type 2 cytokines, including interleukin-4. Succinate decreased the expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue from lean human subjects but not that from obese subjects, who had lower expression of SUCNR1 in adipose-tissue-resident macrophages. Our findings highlight the importance of succinate-SUCNR1 signaling in determining macrophage polarization and assign a role to succinate in limiting inflammation.