Feminizing hormone therapy (FHT) may interact with human immunodeficiency virus preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We found that transgender women who took FHT exhibited a 7-fold lower rectal tissue ratio of PrEP's active metabolites vs competing deoxynucleotides compared to cisgender women and men (P = .03) that inversely correlated with estradiol (ρ = -0.79; P < .05). Thus, FHT may negatively impact PrEP efficacy. Clinical Trials Registration . NCT02983110.
Keywords: HIV; feminizing hormone therapy; lower gastrointestinal tract; preexposure prophylaxis; transgender.
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