Emblica officinalis (Amla) Ameliorates High-Fat Diet Induced Alteration of Cardiovascular Pathophysiology

Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2019;17(1):52-63. doi: 10.2174/1871525717666190409120018.


Background: Dietary high fat possibly causes oxidative stress. Also, it alters the pathophysiology of metabolically active myocardial tissues and vascular architecture. Emblica officinalis contains a potential antioxidant that counteracts oxidative stress and possibly maintains vascular integrity.

Objectives: To assess the effect of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (EEO) on High Fat Diet (HFD) induced changes in vascular chemistry and histopathology of the cardiovascular system in male albino rats.

Materials and methods: Ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (EEO) was prepared and phytochemical analysis was done. Rats were divided into four groups, having six rats in each group as follows: group 1- Control (20% fat); group 2 (20% fat+ EEO 100 mg/kg/b w); group 3 (30% fat) and group 4 (30% fat + EEO 100 mg/kg/b w). Dietary and EEO supplementation was continued for 21 days. Gravimetric and oxidative stress markers like MDA, NO, antioxidants like Vitamin C and E, and molecular marker (NOS3) were evaluated. Histopathological analysis was done on the myocardium and elastic artery along with measurement of coronary arterial wall thickness and lumen diameter. One way ANOVA was done for analysis of data.

Results: High fat diet showed a significant increase in MDA, decrease of NO with unaltered NOS3 protein in rats fed with high fat diet, which indicate possible alteration of vascular pathophysiology. Supplementation of EEO showed an ameliorating effect on high fat diet induced oxidative stress. These results were further corroborated with findings of a histopathological study on the myocardium, elastic artery and coronary arterial architecture.

Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (EEO) indicates its cardioprotective efficacy against rats fed with high fat diet.

Keywords: Emblica officinalis; high fat diet; histopathology; oxidative stress; pathophysiology; vascular integrity..

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Coronary Vessels / drug effects
  • Coronary Vessels / physiopathology
  • Diet, High-Fat / adverse effects*
  • Heart / drug effects
  • Heart / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Phyllanthus emblica / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Rats


  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts